Airway Management / Ventilation

Refresh your airway management skills with articles on advanced airways, endotracheal aspiration, nasopharyngeal airways, and respiratory arrest.

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Out-Of-Hospital CPAP vs BiPAP

When using CPAP or BiPAP, oxygenation occurs by delivering oxygenated air, usually at high concentrations, directly to the lungs and prevents alveolar collapse, therefore allowing more alveolar recruitment.

The Value of Capnography for Prehospital Providers

Capnography is becoming increasingly popular in EMS care. Its benefits include receiving real-time information about ventilatory status and, in turn, perfusion status.

Special Considerations for Pediatric Patients: Endotracheal Intubation

Only 7-13% of EMS calls involve pediatric patients, and those requiring airway management are infrequent. Learn more about the challenges of pediatric intubation.

Difficult Airway Evaluation and Management Part 1

The concepts of difficult airways are frequently discussed in the field of anesthesia. Every patient that is anesthetized goes through an airway assessment to determine the potential of a difficult airway. Different tests and observations can help point to a potential difficult airway. Learn more about airway history and how to assess difficult airways.

Evaluating Difficult Airways Part 2: Airway Management Devices

There are multiple devices and airway adjuncts available to help the laryngoscopist obtain and secure the difficult airway. Ultimately, the selection of an airway adjunct for airway management is based on familiarity and skill with the device, as well as (1) the need for airway control; (2) the ease of laryngoscopy; (3) the ability to use supralaryngeal ventilation; (4) aspiration risk; and (5) the patient’s tolerance for apnea.

Managing Respiratory Arrest

Knowing and understanding the signs and symptoms of respiratory distress, failure, and arrest is crucial. Respiratory arrest is usually the endpoint of respiratory distress that leads to respiratory failure. Respiratory distress and failure have multiple causes, all of which, if left untreated, can deteriorate into respiratory arrest. The best treatment is knowing and understanding the signs and symptoms of respiratory distress and respiratory failure so interventions can be initiated and respiratory arrest averted altogether.

Laryngeal Mask Airways (LMAs)

The development of the LMA has been hailed as one of the most significant advances in airway management since the endotracheal (ET) tube. Learn about laryngeal mask airways today!

Endotracheal Intubation via Direct Laryngoscopy

Direct laryngoscopy (DL) is the approach providers most commonly use for endotracheal intubations and has been utilized in operating rooms, emergency departments, ambulances, and intensive care units throughout the healthcare arena.

Mask Ventilation

The importance of proper mask ventilation cannot be overstated. Health care professionals should be confident in the skills to manage a basic airway until more advanced airway experts arrive. Learn more!

Endotracheal Aspiration (ETA) of Intubated Patients

Suctioning may be done through an endotracheal tube, tracheostomy tube, or through the nose or mouth into the trachea. Although each procedure is slightly different, indications, supplies, procedures and risks are similar.

Effective Use of Oropharyngeal and Nasopharyngeal Airways

Oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airways are adjuncts that can be used to obtain/maintain an open airway. Learn about their effective use.